ISSN 2146-8133
 

Original Research (Original Article) Open Access


Histopathologic risk factors for metastasis in retinoblastoma seen in a tertiary eye center in South, South Nigeria

Roseline Ekanem Duke, Hardeep Mudhar, Enembe Okokon.

Abstract
Purpose: To analyze the frequency of histopathological high-risk factors (HRF) for systemic metastasis in retinoblastoma (RB) in our patient population.
Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective case series, with review of clinical data and histopathologic, immunocytochemistry slides, from a particular laboratory, of eyes enucleated for RB between 2006 and 2012.
Results: A total of 28 eyes with histopathologic reports confirming RB from a particular laboratory were seen between 2006 and 2012. The mean age at presentation was 33.68 ± 12.27 months (range: 6-55 months). 15 (53.60%) of the patients were males, and 13 (46.40%) were females. Approximately 12 (43%) of these patients presented with leucocoria, while the least frequent presentation was strabismus 2 (7%). The mean duration of symptoms at presentation was 7.07 ± 4.29 months. Grade e intraocular classification for RB was seen in 27 (96.40%) of cases. International staging classification of stages included Stage 1 (1 patient, 3.57%), Stage 2 (2, 7.14%), Stage 3A (4, 14.30%), Stage 3B: (6, 21.40%) Stage 4A (2, 7.14%) and Stage 4B (13, 46%). HRF that were predictive of metastasis were choroidal infiltration (20 patients, 71.40%), retrolaminar optic nerve (ON) invasion (17, 60.70%), invasion of the ON to transection 1 (6, 78.60%), scleral infiltration (23, 82.10%) and extra-scleral extension (13, 46.40%).
Conclusion: There is a high frequency of histopathological risk factors present in the patients with eyes enucleated for RB in this population. This finding is in agreement with suggestions of poor prognosis and high-mortality in this region, especially from the central nervous system metastasis.

Key words: Cataract, high-risk factors, metastasis, optic nerve length, retinoblastoma, subarachnoid


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Duke RE, Mudhar H, Okokon E. Histopathologic risk factors for metastasis in retinoblastoma seen in a tertiary eye center in South, South Nigeria. Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2015; 4(2): 83-88. doi:10.5455/aces.20140811061012


Web Style

Duke RE, Mudhar H, Okokon E. Histopathologic risk factors for metastasis in retinoblastoma seen in a tertiary eye center in South, South Nigeria. http://www.ejmaces.com/?mno=163995 [Access: February 19, 2018]. doi:10.5455/aces.20140811061012


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Duke RE, Mudhar H, Okokon E. Histopathologic risk factors for metastasis in retinoblastoma seen in a tertiary eye center in South, South Nigeria. Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2015; 4(2): 83-88. doi:10.5455/aces.20140811061012



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Duke RE, Mudhar H, Okokon E. Histopathologic risk factors for metastasis in retinoblastoma seen in a tertiary eye center in South, South Nigeria. Arch Clin Exp Surg. (2015), [cited February 19, 2018]; 4(2): 83-88. doi:10.5455/aces.20140811061012



Harvard Style

Duke, R. E., Mudhar, H. & Okokon, E. (2015) Histopathologic risk factors for metastasis in retinoblastoma seen in a tertiary eye center in South, South Nigeria. Arch Clin Exp Surg, 4 (2), 83-88. doi:10.5455/aces.20140811061012



Turabian Style

Duke, Roseline Ekanem, Hardeep Mudhar, and Enembe Okokon. 2015. Histopathologic risk factors for metastasis in retinoblastoma seen in a tertiary eye center in South, South Nigeria. Archives of Clinical and Experimental Surgery (ACES), 4 (2), 83-88. doi:10.5455/aces.20140811061012



Chicago Style

Duke, Roseline Ekanem, Hardeep Mudhar, and Enembe Okokon. "Histopathologic risk factors for metastasis in retinoblastoma seen in a tertiary eye center in South, South Nigeria." Archives of Clinical and Experimental Surgery (ACES) 4 (2015), 83-88. doi:10.5455/aces.20140811061012



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Duke, Roseline Ekanem, Hardeep Mudhar, and Enembe Okokon. "Histopathologic risk factors for metastasis in retinoblastoma seen in a tertiary eye center in South, South Nigeria." Archives of Clinical and Experimental Surgery (ACES) 4.2 (2015), 83-88. Print. doi:10.5455/aces.20140811061012



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Duke, R. E., Mudhar, H. & Okokon, E. (2015) Histopathologic risk factors for metastasis in retinoblastoma seen in a tertiary eye center in South, South Nigeria. Archives of Clinical and Experimental Surgery (ACES), 4 (2), 83-88. doi:10.5455/aces.20140811061012





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