Clinical Practice in Plastic Surgery and its Sub Disciplines

Opinion Article - Archives of Clinical and Experimental Surgery (2022)

Clinical Practice in Plastic Surgery and its Sub Disciplines

Sems Zaid*
Department of Plastic Surgery, The University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK
*Corresponding Author:

Sems Zaid, Department of Plastic Surgery, The University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK, Email:

Received: 05-Jul-2022, Manuscript No. EJMACES-22-70588; Editor assigned: 08-Jul-2022, Pre QC No. EJMACES-22-70588 (PQ); Reviewed: 25-Jul-2022, QC No. EJMACES-22-70588; Revised: 01-Aug-2022, Manuscript No. EJMACES-22-70588 (R); Published: 08-Aug-2022


A surgical speciality known as plastic surgery deals with the reconstruction, augmentation, or change of the human body. Reconstructive surgery and cosmetic surgery are the two main divisions. The treatment of burns, hand surgery, microsurgery, and craniofacial surgery are all examples of reconstructive surgery. Cosmetic (or aesthetic) surgery tries to enhance the appearance of the body, as opposed to reconstructive surgery, which aims to rebuild a component of the body or improve its functionality.

Subspecialties of plastic surgery include

Aesthetic surgery: Plastic surgery’s core specialty is cosmetic surgery, which encompasses procedures for the face and body. In all reconstructive surgical procedures and single surgeries to enhance look, plastic surgeons apply the principles of cosmetic surgery.

Burn surgery: Burn surgery typically consists of two stages. The first course of treatment for a burn is acute burn surgery. After the burn wounds have healed, reconstructive burn surgery is performed.

Craniofacial surgery: The two categories of craniofacial surgery are paediatric and adult. Congenital abnormalities in the soft tissues and bones of the craniofacial region, including cleft lip and palate, microtia, craniosynostosis, and juvenile fractures, are the main focus of paediatric craniofacial surgery. Adult craniofacial surgery primarily focuses on reconstructive procedures following cancer or trauma, as well as revision procedures, orthognathic surgery, and facial feminization procedures. All plastic surgery training programmes include a significant amount of instruction in craniofacial surgery. A craniofacial fellowship can be used to earn additional training and subspecialisation. Maxillofacial surgeons also perform craniofacial surgery.

Ethnic plastic surgery: Ethnic plastic surgery is cosmetic surgery done to alter ethnic characteristics; it is frequently thought of as a means of passing.

Hand surgery: Peripheral nerve issues, congenital deformities of the upper extremities, acute traumas, and chronic disorders of the hand and wrist are all addressed in hand surgery (such as brachial plexus injuries or carpal tunnel syndrome). Both microsurgery, which is required to replant an amputated extremity, and hand surgery are significant components of plastic surgery training. General surgeons and orthopaedic surgeons both work in the subject of hand surgery. On the delicate hand, scar tissue growth following surgery can be problematic and, if severe enough, can result in a loss of dexterity and digit function. There have been cases of surgery to women’s hands in order to correct perceived flaws to create the perfect engagement ring photo.

Microsurgery: The main goal of microsurgery is to reconnect blood arteries and restore missing tissues by transferring a portion of tissue to the reconstruction site. Breast reconstruction, head and neck reconstruction, hand surgery/replantation, and brachial plexus surgery are common specialist fields.

Pediatric plastic surgery: Children frequently have medical concerns that are significantly different from those of an adult patient. Pediatric plastic surgeons are experts in treating these disorders in children. Many birth abnormalities or syndromes that are present at birth are best treated in childhood. Craniofacial malformations, Syndactyly (webbing of the fingers and toes), Polydactyly (extra fingers and toes at birth), cleft lip and palate, and congenital hand deformities are among the conditions that paediatric plastic surgeons frequently treat.

Prison plastic surgery: An early 20th century practise that persisted until the mid-1990s involved performing plastic surgery on an inmate population in an effort to lower their recidivism rate. Excluding surgery carried out to meet a medical requirement.

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