Types and Risks Associated with Cardiac Surgery

Commentary - Archives of Clinical and Experimental Surgery (2022)

Types and Risks Associated with Cardiac Surgery

Jenny Cot*
Department of Surgery, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge University Hospital NHS Trust, UK
*Corresponding Author:

Jenny Cot, Department of Surgery, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge University Hospital NHS Trust, UK, Email:

Received: 01-Feb-2022, Manuscript No. EJMACES-22-58011; Editor assigned: 03-Feb-2022, Pre QC No. EJMACES-22-58011; Reviewed: 17-Feb-2022, QC No. EJMACES-22-58011; Revised: 22-Feb-2022, Manuscript No. EJMACES-22-58011; Published: 01-Mar-2022


Cardiac surgery, often known as cardiovascular surgery, is surgery performed on the heart or major blood vessels by cardiac surgeons. It’s frequently used to treat ischemic heart disease consequences (for example, with coronary artery bypass grafting), congenital heart disease, and valvular heart disease from a variety of causes, including endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, and atherosclerosis. Heart surgery can be a medical emergency in some instances. A serious heart attack, for example, may necessitate immediate surgery. In some circumstances, heart surgery can be scheduled ahead of time. Some heart surgeries, such as heart bypass surgery for clogged arteries in the heart, are substantial operations. Other surgeries, such as the implantation of a pacemaker, are more minor heart procedures.

Types of cardiac surgery

Open-heart surgery: Any procedure in which a surgeon makes a major incision (cut) in the chest to open the rib cage and operate on the heart is known as open-heart surgery. The term “open” refers to the chest rather than the heart. The surgeon may potentially open the heart, depending on the type of surgery.

Modern beating-heart surgery: Surgeons began performing off-pump coronary artery bypass without cardiopulmonary bypass in the early 1990s. The heart continues to beat during these procedures, but it is stabilised to offer a nearly motionless work area in which to connect a conduit vessel that bypasses a blockage.

Heart transplant: In 1945, the Soviet pathologist Nikolai Sinitsyn successfully transplanted a heart from one frog to another frog and from one dog to another dog. Although the world’s first adult heart transplant was performed by a South African cardiac surgeon, Christiaan Barnard, utilising techniques pioneered by Shumway and Richard Lower, Norman Shumway is largely considered as the father of human heart transplantation.

Coronary artery bypasses grafting: Coronary artery bypass grafting, also known as revascularization, is a frequent surgical treatment that involves creating a new blood supply conduit for the heart and body in order to avoid clot development. This can be accomplished in a variety of methods, and the arteries used can come from various parts of the body.

Minimally invasive surgery: As a choice to open- heart medical procedure, which includes a five-to eight-inch entry point in the chest wall, a surgeon may perform an endoscopic procedure by making tiny cuts through which a camera and particular devices are embedded.


The advancement of cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass techniques has greatly reduced the mortality rates of these procedures. For instance, repairs of congenital heart defects are currently estimated to have 4–6% mortality rates.

The risk of neurological injury during heart surgery is a big issue. Stroke occurs in 2%–3% of all people who have heart surgery, and the probability is higher in patients who have other stroke risk factors. Postperfusion syndrome, sometimes known as “pumphead,” is a more modest consequence associated with cardiopulmonary bypass. Postperfusion syndrome’s neurocognitive symptoms were once assumed to be permanent, but they turned out to be temporary, with no long-term neurological impairment.

A prominent risk model called the EuroSCORE was developed to evaluate the performance of surgical units and individual surgeons. It takes a patient’s health data and attempts to quantify the likelihood that they will live to discharge using precalculated logistic regression coefficients. The EuroSCORE was used in the United Kingdom to provide a breakdown of all cardiothoracic surgery centres and to determine whether the units and their individual surgeons performed within an acceptable range.

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